Hiend Audio, DIY, Hi-Fi, Stereo, Electronics site, for lovers of high-fidelity music reproduction. High-End Vacuum Tubes. Silicon. Do-It-Yourself Audio Systems. Schematics: amplifiers, speakers, horns, CD, DAC. Circuits, Topologies, Acoustics, Cables, Speakers, Voltage Regulators, Equipment Upgrades, Modifications, Problems, Solutions, Tips, Tricks. ------ Dla pasjonatów Hiend Audio, najwyższej wierności odtwarzania muzyki na sprzęcie budowanym, modyfikowanym samemu. Wiedza: elektronika, układy lampowe i krzemowe, wzmacniacze, głośniki, kolumny, tuby, DAC, kable, DIY, porady, sztuczki, problemy, rozwiązania, tor audio.

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DIY silicon

Caption:  A popular transistor pairing. Often used in LDO voltage regulators, but also in power amplifiers and in many other places.

Caption: A popular transistor pairing. Often used in LDO voltage regulators, but also in power amplifiers and in many other places.

Good Hiend-Audio DIY Silicon

All your ideas relating to the best possible application of electronics, schematics, specific voltage regulators, topologies, diagrams, modules, your ideas of specific audiophile related electronic problems, and how to solve them – all this is kindly Welcome !

Here is a short list of some of my favorites (just for starters…) :

ATTENTION: The sequence is of pure chaotic nature and does NOT prioritize, does NOT constitute an expression of my preferences, does NOT constitute a ranking. It is a very prosaic effect of cut-copy-paste activity :)




Since its founding in 2003, AAC has grown into one of the largest online electrical engineering communities. It is a positive, open community of electronics geeks who enjoy sharing knowledge and ideas. The community takes pride in educating electrical engineers as they grow their experience and knowledge.


This one, for starters, contains an easy reading, short history of …. the voltage regulator. One might ask: What has a voltage regulator in common to Hiend-Audio quality of music reproduction: My response to that is: SIMPLY EVERYTHING.

It is not your chips that play your music. It is the QUALITY of the POWER SUPPLY that FEEDS them. If you ever even consider listening to Hiend-Audio quality music, I strongly believe that first of all, you need to catch up with your homework in the “Voltage Regulator” department. And this site above is a very good place to start your easy-reading.


This is a goldmine. A resource with both electronics theory in general, but also an extensive presentation of various projects that you can build. Great reading, but you will need an extended vacation to dig though all of this stuff, as the sheer volume is breathtaking.

An Online Circuit Simulator with SPICE  |   PartSim

Existing for over 50 years, the Penton Electronics Group is the electronic design engineer’s source for design ideas and solutions, new technology information and engineering essentials. Individual brands in the group include Electronic Design, Microwaves & RF, Power Electronics Technology, Mobile Dev & Design, Auto Electronics and Defense Electronics. They also have a data product for engineers, SourceESB. Penton Electronics Group can take an engineer from intent to action or, in other words, from a design idea sketched as a schematic on a napkin through to the ordering process for prototypes and final production. (This is a commercial site – but a very valuable one for any and all DIY fan, who wants to LEARN – be it beginner, intermediate, or advanced !).

Accurately Measure Nanoampere And Picoampere Currents | Test & Measurement content from Electronic Design
Just an example ElectronicDesign article (one of many): „…Measuring current is always a nuisance because you have to break the circuit to put the measuring device in series with the circuit. That problem never goes away. Still, any high-end digital multimeter can accurately measure currents down into the microampere and high-nanoampere range. But the process gets tricky as the current levels fall into the low-nanoampere and picoampere ranges. …..”


Mr. Teddy Pardo and his small, cute, but very very powerful Voltage Regulator -and- GYRATOR, otherwise known as a Capacitance Multiplier (but with an ‘original twist’). When I say “powerful” – do not be misled. This is NOT about watts power. Your DAC chip shall consume probably no more than a few tens or hundreds of milliamps of current. Not much indeed. When I say “powerful” – I mean that it is dead silent. Very low-noise. Worth reading and analyzing.


A very interesting alternative to the above … introducing additional features, such as precision regulation.


Mr. WALT JUNG (Yes!, printed in Bold! ) is a living history of practical applications of electronics. The Gentleman has written a whole bunch of goodies on various electronics related subjects, but I personally view his JUNG SUPER REGULATOR as a masterpiece, that needs to be dealt with as a new dimension when it comes to listening to Hiend-Audio music.


Mr. Jung has also written some good texts on the CAPACITORS used in audio … and why some of them sound lousy, some of them sound good, … but some of them shine like diamonds …


EDN is a site dedicated for the design engineer. They aim to be an open electronics community for engineers, by engineers, with the information, tools, courses, and professional connections you need to get the job done and get your ideas from concept to reality. And they do so by welcoming your contributed content, comments, and opinions. After registering and loggin in, EDN shares what it has to offer, from following other members of our community, to commenting, to accessing information, files, and tools….


Mr. Andrea Ciuffolli is a true goldmine of TESTED DIY projects. It is not that he just designed them. He actually BUILT them and he knows that they work. Very detailed description regarding the implementation, execution of the projects provides you with an extra level of comfort, that you will not go astray and that you shall succeed.

Forum elektronika, schematy, porady, naprawahttp://www.elektroda.pl 
This is a Polish discussion forum, but a very prestigious one, regarding electronics in general, schematics and diagrams, help on “how to solve” problem issues, and “how to repair” …you name it – you will find it.


A very good, “no-compromises” voltage regulator from Mr. Andrew Weekes….


… detailed instructions as to how to implement the high voltage version of the Salas Regulator, so that nothing explodes along the way (because in general, high voltages are “tricky” – so every little bit of advice – helps ! )


… the low voltage version of the Salas …. with an extensive discussion …




Now, this Mr. Turner … I simply LOVE this guy. He is a living Encyclopedia of Vacuum Tubes, and on how to use them. This is an easy-reading-for-starters, no nonsense, no-mathematical-extremes practical approach of “Hey ! I got a Tube. So let’s USE it !” In terms of the teaching methodology, Mr. Turner has my Highest Regard.


John Broskie – a yet BIGGER RESOURCE and living vacuum tube ENCYCLOPEDIA. This Gentleman has created a HUGE resource about tubes, transistors, practical circuits, pitfalls, recommendations, detailed analysis of various design options …. It will probably take a lifetime do dig through all the wisdom held on these precious pages …. And it will be definitely worth it.

Humble Homemade Hifi

A very good insight as to Signal Capacitor Quality. Some capacitors sound „better” – fact of fiction ?

Elektronika Radiotechnika Elementy Schematy – Hobby dla każdego – Artykuły:

A Polish language version Service, relating to electronics, components, schematics, and practical application examples. Fairly easy to build circuits. Electronics in the broad sense of the word. Articles; ( artykuły ) for beginners; Descriptions of components ( opisy elementów ) for the more advanced; Schematics of devices, tested functionality, grouped into categories: audio, auto, alarms, for home, computer, radio, telephony, video, workbench i fun. Downloads of programs, useful for the DIY electronics people ( programs ). Tutorials; Tips and Tricks.


An example of an easy reading ( ’101′ ) article of theirs relating to capacitors ..


Decibel Dungeon is a DIY site for all hi-fi enthusiasts.

Starting DIY hi-fi
Modifying hi-fi
Building hi-fi

Hi-fi upgrades
Turntables etc
The power supply
Hi-fi cables
Hi-fi Installation
Hi-fi media
Computer Audio
Solder station
Arcam A60 mods
Gainclone pages
Digital section

Building a Gainclone chip amphttp://www.decdun.me.uk/gainclone.html

This is just but one example of how they build a Gainclone amplifier using the LM3875 chip. Detailed photo instructions. Straightforward. It is as easy a presentation as it gets. Simply start soldering …


Where a moving picture is worth more than a 1000 words … A different approach to electonics tutorials….

Pass Laboratories

A site dedicated to DIY enthusiasts, and guess by whom: By a Mr. NELSON PASS (!)

Pass Labs: Technical articleshttps://www.passdiy.com/project
A DIY Projects List page from Nelson Pass.


A Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Audio Projects site – containing projects for audiophiles, hi-fi enthusiasts, music lovers, electronic hobbyists, woodworkers and those who like to learn, build and listen to music. This site exists to promote the hobby of DIY Audio. There is nothing for sale there. All project documentation presented on the site is free for personal non-commercial use.

Synergy – LM3875 Gainclone Amplifier (Chip Amp)

Just for examples sake, one of their projects: a DIY LM3875 Non-Inverting Gainclone Amplifier Project, …. constructed around an inexpensive aluminum baking pan chassis :)


A very good site, with some very good projects. Check out the NOS DAC based on the parallelled AD1865. A masterpiece …


A Polish language version portal for DIY enthusiasts, readers of the „Elektronika dla Wszystkich” (Electronics for Everybody) magazine. Lots of interesting material, theory, projects, etc.


Nelson Pass – a very interesting article regarding the „Sweet Spot” … on hometoys.com
http://www.diyaudio.comA Gold Mine of Audio projects: By Fanatics, For Fanatics. A must read.
Once you step inside, I expect that I will not be seeing you again, returning any time soon …

ESP Projects Pages – DIY Audio and Electronics
ESP Project Pages – DIY audio projects. Amplifiers, preamps, crossovers, speakers, guitar amplifiers and lots more to choose from. LOTS of theory on audio-electronics. A very good place to learn from, providing you are intermediate in electronic skills …
Project 117
Just to arouse your interest:
ESP Audio Projects: „Insane power amplifier … 1.5kW into 4 ohms ! Yes, but at what cost?”
Death of Zen – A new Class-A power amp
… to arouse your interest some more:
ESP Project Pages – Death of Zen – A new Class-A power amp. A simple but very high performance Class-A power amplifier
Troubleshooting & Repair Guide

Having finished your masterpiece, it is with some distress that you find that it doesn’t work. Such failures range from instantaneous meltdown upon power-up (remember the safety resistors I always suggest? Now you know why!), through to strange noises, intermittent behaviour, etc., etc.
It is not possible to write an article that covers every possibility, but hopefully the material presented here will get you underway with as little pain as possible.
Mr. Elliot presents troubleshooting techniques for audio electronics – if your project doesn’t work, what should you look for? This articles explains basic techniques for fault finding and repair techniques.

ESP Projects Pages – DIY Audio and Electronics
Comprehensive list of projects:
ESP Project Pages – DIY audio projects. Amplifiers, preamps, crossovers, speakers, guitar amplifiers and lots more to choose from
ESP Projects Pages – DIY Audio and Electronics
Projects list by CATEGORY
ESP Project Pages – DIY audio projects. Power amplifiers and accessories.
A nice site with a multitude of small diy projects that can be built from the good old NE555 timer IC. Lots of other project are also available, but the guy definitely has a „thing” about the NE555 ;)
(Polish) – A very good crash course on the very basics of electronics … source materials on the Basics of Electronics as teached on th Polish AGH University of Science and Technology to In Krakow, addressed to students of the first 2 semesters …
Electrical Engineering Training Series, Matter, Energy, Direct Current, Alternating Current, Transformers, Circuit Protection, Electrical Conductors, Schematic Readings, Generators and Motors, Electronic Emission, Power Supplies, Wave-Shaping Circuits, Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, Microwave Principles
Figure 1-25.Shunt grid-leak biasing
A sample training lesson … on Tube Grid-Leak biassing.
This page presents turn-on and turn-off time measurements for five power diodes …
Clifton Laboratories, the page of Jack Smith, K8ZOA, author of Programming the PIC Microcontroller with MBasic. This site documents my past and present projects in the worlds of PIC microcontrollers and amateur radio.
CordellAudio.com – Download LTspice
LTSpice simulation software – download site and descriptions.
This is a very interesting, hands on, DIY site, by Mr. Jimmy Auw.  Lots of interesting information on tubes, circuits, and more. 
With some very functional and easy to build electronic circuits, for the very beginners, as well as the somewhat advanced – alike.  Very good practical functionality of some of those, … will need to find time to build some of them for my own practical purposes, I guess … Putting it in their words:

Circuit Diagram - Schematics is the language of electronics. It provides a concise and comprehensive diagrammatic description of a circuit. Schematics.com allows users to connect and share designs and ideas in a like-minded community.


A SPICE simulations resource.
Linear Technology provides a variety of custom design simulation tools and device models to allow even novice designers to quickly and easily evaluate circuits using high performance switching regulators, amplifiers, data converters, filters and more.


An interesting text by Norman Koren about Feedback, and how it relates (or does NOT relate) to the quality (deterioration?) of sound …


“… A central mystery of high-end audio amplifier design is the poor correlation between subjective sound quality and conventional measurements (frequency response, harmonic distortion, etc.). For this reason, many of the choices involved in amplifier design– the selection of the overall circuit topology, the use of negative feedback (NFB) and the often-overlooked tradeoff between frequency response extension and radio frequency (RF) interference– have remained an art….”


“The Emperor’s New Amplifier”TM (TENA) for a quality it shares with the fabled emperor’s wardrobe– transparency. It was also an oblique reference to the marketing hype that pollutes high-end audio. … TENA has been working reliably since 1997. …. Brace yourself for a tour de force of amplifier design. It’s arguably the most sophisticated vacuum tube amplifier ever. But be forewarned if you plan to build it: It’s not a simple project. Absolutely not for beginners! …”


… Things like microphone techniques, how we hear stereo imaging, and concert hall acoustics … To provide information about equipment in somewhat more detail … extensive measurements on the speakers under review, …. with more than a verbal summary of these measurements …”


A PSPICE … calculator for various tubes.


A comprehensive DIY audio guide to home stereo / hifi systems; tonnes of data, instructions, and tips to get you embark on your journey towards hifi nirvana. The topics covered here would be: high fidelity (hifi) audio, CD, source (CD Player, CD Transport, digital media player), DAC (digital-to-analog converter), vinyl (LP), turntable (LP player), tonearm, cartridge, phono stage, pre-amplifier (line stage), power amplifier, integrated amplifier, loudspeaker, interconnect, speaker cable, power cord, power line conditioner, accessories, tweaks, tips and tricks, music, do it yourself (DIY) audio, and more.



…. more will follow shortly …

Please feel free to comment, or to suggest other valuable DIY modules, schematics, circuits.





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