Hiend Audio, DIY, Hi-Fi, Stereo, Electronics site, for lovers of high-fidelity music reproduction. High-End Vacuum Tubes. Silicon. Do-It-Yourself Audio Systems. Schematics: amplifiers, speakers, horns, CD, DAC. Circuits, Topologies, Acoustics, Cables, Speakers, Voltage Regulators, Equipment Upgrades, Modifications, Problems, Solutions, Tips, Tricks. ------ Dla pasjonatów Hiend Audio, najwyższej wierności odtwarzania muzyki na sprzęcie budowanym, modyfikowanym samemu. Wiedza: elektronika, układy lampowe i krzemowe, wzmacniacze, głośniki, kolumny, tuby, DAC, kable, DIY, porady, sztuczki, problemy, rozwiązania, tor audio.

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DIY tubes

Beautiful TubesGood Hiend-Audio DIY Tubes

All your ideas relating to the best possible application of vacuum tubes, schematics, specific topologies, diagrams, modules, your ideas of specific audiophile related vacuum tube problems, and how to solve them – all this is kindly Welcome !

Here is a short list of some of my favorites (just for starters…) :




A must read for the beginners and medium advanced tube lovers. Very good presentation of various tube topologies and what they are used for.


This is an absolute MUST read for those of you who are totally unacquainted with tubes, and possibly command the Polish language (as the page is in Polish). Even if you do not know our language – Use google translate service. It is a must read. Very simple explanation of how your tube amp works ! Specifically, …


is the beginning of a fairly long cycle of articles about tube basic. A nice read for the absolute beginners …

Mr. WALT JUNG (yes, printed in Bold) is a living history of practical applications of electronics. The Gentleman has written a whole bunch of goodies on various electronics related subjects, but in the context of vacuum tube equipment, these ones you should look at:

http://waltjung.org/PDFs/Picking_Capacitors_1.pdf http://waltjung.org/PDFs/Picking_Capacitors_2.pdf

Capacitors, especially coupling interstage capacitors that transmit your Music Signal, are a key concern within every tube amplifier. Mr. Jung has written some good texts on the CAPACITORS used in audio … and why some of them sound lousy, some of them sound good, … but some of them shine like diamonds …


Mr. Andrea Ciuffolli is a true goldmine of TESTED DIY projects. Not just silicon, but also Vacuum Tube Amplifiers, Tube Pre-amplifiers, tubed buffer stages, and many more. It is not that he just designed them. He actually BUILT them and he knows that they work. Very detailed description regarding the implementation, execution of the projects provides you with an extra level of comfort, that you will not go astray and that you shall succeed.


Your vacuum tube amplifier needs Hi Voltages. Here are detailed instructions as to how to implement the high voltage version of the Salas Regulator, so that nothing explodes along the way (because in general, high voltages are “tricky” – so every little bit of advice – helps ! )



Turner Audio in Canberra Australia builds handcrafted tube amplifiers and loudspeakers and provides repairs or upgrades for most audio equipment. Now, this Mr. Turner … I simply LOVE this guy.He is a living Encyclopedia of Vacuum Tubes, and on how to use them. This is an easy-reading-for-starters, no nonsense, no-mathematical-extremes practical approach of “Hey ! I got a Tube. So let’s USE it !” In terms of the teaching methodology, Mr. Turner has my Highest Regard.


www.hificollective.co.uk offers hi-fi DIY ‘ers  the ultimate one stop website. Whether you build you own valve amps from scratch, dabble in speaker design, a component tweaker or a true beginner, you will find this as a great source of knowledge, components and resources. Its founder, Nick Lucas, has cut his teeth in the diy sector working for World Audio Design, running the kits division of Hi-Fi World Magazine for 10 years. Hi-Fi Collective Ltd started trading in May 2003 and has grown steadily ever since …offering customers a wide range of products and dispatch it immediately. They are a component on-line seller, stock a wide range of brands and are always on the lookout for new products that would be of interest to the DIY community.


www.hificollective.co.uk – the catalogue …


John Broskie – a yet BIGGER RESOURCE and living Vacuum Tube ENCYCLOPEDIA. This Gentleman has created a HUGE resource about tubes, transistors, practical circuits, pitfalls, recommendations, detailed analysis of various design options …. It will probably take a lifetime do dig through all the wisdom held on these precious pages …. And it will be definitely worth it. My Highest Recommendation.


This is a very useful page with electron tube data sheets, but it ALSO provides some valuable information about equivalent tubes to the one you are searching for …

http://tubedata.info http://tubedata.org

Frank’s Electron tube Pages – a huge resource – a listing of various types of valves and information sheets.  Good source material, if you have a less popular tube and need to learn something about it.


A little more advanced reading on tubes, especially in the context of guitar amps, but also in general. A good overall presentation of the theory, but put in the perspective of typical building blocks of amplifiers, or more generally, audio systems. A shining diamond here is the page about Transformers – building them, winding them, calculating them.


Lots of stuff about tubes – but the most important thing is the PSU Designer download software – with which you can simulate the behavior of your High Voltage of Low Voltage CRC… or CLC…. filters ! Very handy tool indeed.

OGONOWSKI TRANSFORMATORY – transformatory Single-Ended hi-fi http://www.ogonowski.net.pl/transformatory/transformatory-glosnikowe-se http://www.ogonowski.eu/transformers/push-pull http://www.ogonowski.eu/transformers/single-ended http://www.ogonowski.eu/amplifiers/edis http://www.ogonowski.eu/transformers/chokes http://www.ogonowski.eu/transformers/power

These are the Pages of Mr. Leszek Ogonowski. A Polish producer of High Quality Tube Amplifier Transformers. The classical E-I transformer types, as well as chokes and other products. How do I know ? Because I personally purchased my first set of tube amplifier transformers and chokes, for my FIRST ever amplifier made (DIY), and I purchased them HERE, from Mr. Leszek Ogonowski. His products are handcrafted, with great pride, and are a legend in terms of quality, as well as value for money. I highly recommend this source, be it your „first” DIY experience with tubes, or even some more advanced, refined one. Be it the EL34, the B300 or even the mighty GM70 … Leszek will do it for you. Just state your case, name the basic application – Mr. Ogonowski will do all the rest for you. In my case, he even signaled, that my specs for the transformer were less than optimal, i.e. By changing a certain parameter a bit, I shall get a much better sound experience. And indeed. I DID.


This is the first tube amplifier that I have ever made (see above). It is a clone of the Williamson amplifier, based on EL34 tubes. A nice starting point for the beginner DIY. All essential voltages are well documented. Getting it up and running was a breeze.


A Russian page, but with an English language version. Catalog of Russian tubes – enclosed. A good read.


Now this is something else altogether. You may or may not be aware, that the Russian folks have a very broad and deep understanding of tubes, as well as of DIY. This one is just for starters.

http://sergeev21.narod.ru http://sergeev21.narod.ru/amp.htm

My highest regards, Sergeev ! Lot’s of interesting stuff in there …

http://spbsound.narod.ru http://tubeaudio.ucoz.ru


A good site on tube amplifiers.


Triodes and triode-mode power pentodes … It is a useful trick to triode-strap a pentode or a tetrode valve, certainly as far as the hobbyist is concerned. For starters, ‘true’ triode power valves are currently ridiculously expensive, with even the Russian 2A3s costing a good £15-£20 each. Bearing in mind that great-quality Russian EL34s only cost between £5-£10, there is clearly something wrong here. Or rather, the ‘triode mystique’ we seem to have at the moment is pushing prices up for the simple reason that people expect to pay more. ….


Nutshell High Fidelity, the home of Lynn Olson, Gary Dahl, and many articles about loudspeakers,
electronics, and the
history of High Fidelity over the decades.

Two of the most interesting articles are:
Current Loop keynote speech given at the 2004 European Triode Festival, along with

Western Electric – A Rosetta Stone for Triodes.

Author for Positive Feedback, Glass Audio, and Vacuum Tube Valley magazines, with some of the best in the Soul of Sound library – or if you’d like to see his most recent writing, visit the ClariSonus Blog that John Atwood and the author wrote together. Have fun!

The Amity, Raven, and Aurora http://www.nutshellhifi.com/triode1.html

By Lynn Olson, an inspiring description of how these beautiful tube amplifiers came to be.

Direct Heating 


DH ( ‘ DIRECT HEATING’ ) is a society for audiophiles enjoying music through the Sakuma system, in search of quality musical sound through hand made vacuum tube amplifiers. Explore the Wonders of Direct Heated tubes. The Page includes information about Japanese audiophiles, and viewpoints and temptations of another world.

Schemat wzmacniacza


This is a (Polish language) site of Mr. Slawicz. He presents a few of his DIY designs. All very interesting.


A subpage of Mr. Slawicz. Here he presents a very nice design of a tube amplifier „Concertino”, a DIY, and one that performs very favorably. Worth considering. But more – even if you do not BUILD it, at least READ it. The description is written in such a way, that you can learn quite a lot from it.

Duncan’s Amp Pages http://www.duncanamps.com/index.htm

Duncan’s Amp Pages – Internet resource for guitar amps and vacuum tubes

DH with the Sakuma System-1


In The schematics Sakuma shows his concept in power amplifier design. He uses the same tube for driver and output ….

Dławik EI 42/14 40H 20mA 2.14kOm :: Telto – sklep internetowy :: Prostowniki :: http://telto.nazwa.pl/sklep/index.php?cPath=72_41_38&osCsid=d5bbc7ff56f07a7771b031e9235afbf3

A great place to buy good quality and inexpensive transformers, toroidal transformers and chokes for your tube amplifiers ! With a little of translate.google ….. I am sure it will be worth the effort.

Transformatory :: Przetwornice :: Zasilacze :: Prostownik :: Transformator :: Przetwornica :: Zasilacz http://telto.nazwa.pl/sklep/index.php?cPath=72_59&osCsid=d5bbc7ff56f07a7771b031e9235afbf3

The chokes …. oh, and B.T.W, …. 1 EUR = ~ 4.5 PLN… Do the calculations by yourself  :)

KBapps.com – Home Page


Audio Speaker Design Calculators, Electronic Vacuum Tubes Amp Designs, Manuals, Data Sheets, Tube Amplifier Index. Tube data, Tips and Tricks, Calculators, diverse …

Humble Homemade Hifi http://www.humblehomemadehifi.com/Cap.html

Capacitor TEST !


A very nice DIY site with some valuable projects, including the Alan Kimmel Mu-Stage implementation, under the tag name “Morpheus” – recommended reading.

Some Vacuum Tube Catalogues …

Tube List (English)


THE Klausmobile Russian Tube Directory – I love this one …A very valuable resource. Unfortunately the specs are in the Russian language.

Electron Tube Data sheets http://www.mif.pg.gda.pl/homepages/frank/sheets66.html

FRANK’s Electron tube Data Sheets !!!!


FRANK’s „Equivalent” tube search database !!!!

Vacuum Tube theory / basics


A very good introductory course about tubes, basic circuits, topologies, uses, example designs. Nice and easy reading for starters. Polish language version.

Transformator wyjściowy


Tom’s knowledge base relating to transformers – how to calculate them. How to design them. How to build them. Polish language version, but good stuff there.

Projektowanie Wzmacniaczy Lampowych, Uwagi http://www.sp6pnz.republika.pl/doc/pa/part0.html

How to design vacuum tube power amplifiers … Polish language version.


Tom’s knowledge base relating to biasing of the output tubes Polish language version, good stuff.


Tom’s preamplifers – good stuff …


Tom’s miscellaneous – good stuff …


Aikenamps explains what „Blocking Distortion” is. English.


Aikenamps explains what „Star Grounding” is. English.


Aikenamps … Q&A


Aikenamps … on Biasing …


About the VoX ….


A Bibliography of “Must Have” Tube Electronics Books


Designing A Reactive Speaker Load Emulator


A Glossary of Common Amplifier Terms


Safety Tips for Working On Tube Amplifiers


Chokes Explained


What is “Sag”?


Idle Current Biasing – Why 70 percent?


What is Miller Capacitance?


A Comparison of the JJ/Tesla and Electro-Harmonix EL84 Tubes in a Fixed-bias Push-pull Output Stage


Designing Common-Cathode Triode Amplifiers


Designing Phase Shift Oscillators for Tremolo Circuits …there is more of this stuff ! Find it via google as „Aikenamps + html …”


About “Class A” amps ..


The rules of using power tubes, so as to preserve their lasting long life …


When looking for the absolute, passed a certain point, it becomes difficult to find the products that fit your requirements. Because of the price, but also if you want or need something more specific. There is a solution, but certainly not the simplest: Do-It-Yourself … The BonaVolta site is a rich source of schematics, tube electronics, formulas, loudspeaker enclosure design guidelines, and more.

Tubes for Dummies http://www.bonavolta.ch/hobby/en/audio/t_bas.htmTubes for Dummies – a nice and easy presentation …Phase Splitters http://www.bonavolta.ch/hobby/en/audio/split.htm

In a push-pull amp, you need a phase splitter to produce the two identical but in phase opposition signals to drive the power tubes. Phase splitters are like religions, you belong to one or another and discussions between fans are often emotional.


A site devoted to DIY and tweaking. Free online projects of amplifiers, loudspeakers, cables, accessories plus articles on easy upgrades for commercial components.

Jogis Roehrenbude – Roehrenradios, Roehrenverstaerker und vieles mehr http://www.jogis-roehrenbude.de

Here you will find schematics, Repair job documentation, Advice relating to Tube Radios, Amplifiers, photos, a photo catalog of tubes, and much more … ( German )


A description of heterodyne / mixing tubes (Polish).


FUN WITH TUBES – a noncommercial site operated by Max Robinson and dedicated to passing on and preserving knowledge of vacuum tube circuits and techniques. Keep the electrons flowing and the tubes glowing …


Example texts from Angelfire: this one on Amplifier Gain …


Example texts from Angelfire: this one on the Long Tailed Pair …

Multi Grid Tubes http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/funwithtubes/Basics_05_Multigrid.html

Example texts from Angelfire: this one on multi-grid tubes …


A very good piece on the circular nature of a CIRCLE, implemented in the form of tubes. Circlotron, as it is called – is a very intriguing circuit topology that is a must read for the open minded. It is also a good starting point for designing output-transformer-less amplifiers.

http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/funwithtubes/Amp-EL34_UL-A.html http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/funwithtubes/Amp-EL34_UL-B.html http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/funwithtubes/Amp-Tone.html http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/funwithtubes/Restore_cap.html

Examples of some other goodies …

6C33C OTL http://www.tubetvr.com/otl.html

A ** MUST ** read for all OTL fans …

Акробатика ламповых каскадов http://www.radiolamp.ru/shem/unch/23/

(Russian:) A must read about Alan Kimmel’s Mu stage, but with a Russian Twist …


Some nice DIY projects …

L-C Filter Equations http://circuitcalculator.com

A source of circuit calculators …

pentoda – lampa uniwersalna http://www.fonar.com.pl/audio/teoria/lampy/lampy6/lampy.htm

Fonar – a Polish site that is dedicated to tubes, electronics and audio. This example page is just but one page from their tutorials: the Pentode …

Fusing and Floating Grids http://www.w8ji.com/fusing_and_floating_grids.htm

W8JI is an amateur radio fan, because there are so many things to learn. Amateur radio is also a great fraternity. A lot of good stuff that also applies to the Tubed Audio context

Projektowanie transformatora wyjściowego http://www.mif.pg.gda.pl/homepages/jasiu/eka/Zasilacze.html

The Output Transformer is one of the most difficult to obtain / finance / make components of a tube amplifier. To such an extent even, that „first comes the transformer” and then … all the rest of the design, which is subordinate to the transformer … Mr. Jan Barczynski created this page with many a useful word on how to design and build your Tube Amplifier Output Transformer.


Electronics of the days then the tube ruled …. Mr. Barczynski’s Tube Index page …


Gary Pimm’s DIY page. Gary’s circuits and designs.

The Swenson Regulator http://www.pimmlabs.com/web/regulators.htm

The voltage regulator adaptation – based on the self bias CCS that John Swenson designed, plus additional functionality.



The Choke Assisted Mu-Stage – „CAMUS” – a ** MUST ** read on one of the best Voltage amplifier stages that ever existed { probably ;) }

Tubes http://www.oestex.com/tubes/oes.html

** More Power ** from the same Pentode ? Free Lunch ?? Optimised Electron Stream © Technology in Audio and RF Modulators using Tetrodes, Pentodes and Beam Power Tubes


Optimised Electron Stream Patent.


Information presented based upon the premise that when subjectively assessing musical tone, sound stage presence and sheer listening pleasure, modern solid state amplifiers unquestionably deliver outstanding test results in the laboratory into resistive loads, however on reactive loads presenting widely varying impedance and power factor in a complex relationship – such as the dynamic loudspeaker – solid state amplifiers continue to remain a poor second to vacuum tube amplifiers. The humble triode electron tube, with all its faults, still remains the device of choice for the serious audiophile and musician. If you can accept that claim then these pages will be of benefit to you. The Website is dedicated to the work and memory of Herbert J. Reich PhD., Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois, who left us his magnificent contribution to explaining electron tube technology through his definitive work – “Theory and Applications of Electron Tubes”, McGraw Hill, 1939, 1944


This is a commercial site, but addressing the needs of the DIY community, with the following message: Yes, you can do it! The majority of Bottlehead offers ready to be assembled kits – for builders, be it experienced, or even first timers. Many go on and build their entire systems based on these kits.


Boost your tube’s output power ….

HI-END.PL – audio, kino domowe, muzyka, DVD,kalendarz imprez http://www.hi-end.pl/index0.php?id=c_arty&ia=14

A nice collection of on-line articles relating to hi-end, music, jazz, home cinema, equipment, speakers, amps, DAC’s and more …


A Polish service relating to vacuum tubes and their practical uses.


This homepage is dedicated to electron tubes, strictly speaking electron tubes technology. It seems strange because there is no tubes manufacturing in Poland. It so happened that I accepted a challenge to design and make vacuum tubes by myself. Here I present some results of my experiments under the name of Private Tube Manufacture (PWL), which is in fact my home laboratory……

http://www.triodeel.com/tlinks.htm#general Triode -Tube Audio Links Page

General Tube Related and Hifi Links. Tubes and Parts for Hi-Fi,Radio,Guitar,etc…Tube data & amp schematics on-line…links to Tube Amp info on the web.


Electron Tubes, Tube Amplifier Parts, and DIY Tube Amp Kits. A commercial site, US-based, with some good texts on tubes, data specs, documentation, schematics.

6FQ7 / 6CG7 Dual Triode GE / RCA / Sylvania / Tungsol / Westinghouse / Australia https://www.tubeworld.com https://www.tubeworld.com/index_high.htm

A nice source of various vacuum tubes.


A *** Circlotron *** is a vacuum tube power amplifier topology with an unusual push-pull output stage. Rather than alternately driving halves of an output transformer primary whose center-tap is connected to B+, a Circlotron drives the entire primary from a floating bridge. Originally, Circlotron was an Electro-Voice (EV) trademark, these days it seems to refer to any amplifier with a bridged output stage and floating power supplies. …



Cool Schematics. For educational purposes only.


This Polish site is guitar-centric – it concentrates on tubes used in guitar amps and effects add-ons. But it is also valuable to the DIY audio fraternity – it gives numerous examples of topologies that should NOT be used in Hiend-Audio. Guitar amps work on different principles, to achieve different goals, … it is good to know „how” these different goals are achieved, so as to better understand the „tube” and the various ways it can be used.


This is Terry’s page.


The Marantz 9 phase splitter, in a directly coupled amplifier


This is a nice one: a gathering of all possible photos of EL34 based Single Ended amplifiers … quite a lot of those out there …

project.max.io by Andrzej Doniczka | projekty DIY http://a-project.110mb.com

Project.max.io by Mr. Andrzej Doniczka – DIY projects

Wzmacniacz lampowy 2xEL34 by Jq http://diyaudio.pl/showthread.php/10593-Wzmacniacz-lampowy-2xEL34-by-Jq

An example tube amplifier project, with 2x EL34 and 2x 6n8s per channel. Power: 2x 15Watts. The EL34 strapped in Triode Mode.

Electra-Print.com Push-Pull A2 6A3/300Bhttp://www.electra-print.com/pushpull_a2.php

Electra-Print schematics: an example 300B amplifier.


A 300B tube amplifier with the DIRECT REACTANCE DRIVE concept


A MUST Read: The Russian Response to the Japanese ** ONGAKU **

Nicholas’ GM70 SE Amp http://diyparadise.com/nikcgm70.html

How to Make a Transmitter Class Amp, Nicholas Chua


.. All you need to know about DAC kits …

gm70_5687.gif (Obrazek GIF, 1156×781 pikseli) http://diytriode.republika.pl/gm70_5687.gif

A nice GM70 transmitter tube based amplifier, as designed by Maciej Parvi


Audiohobby.pl – an independent audio high-end discussion forum.

Audiohobby.pl – 2a3 300B SETamp http://audiohobby.pl/topic/1/27/all

.. and one of their example threads: a 2a3 / 300B based tube amplifiers


Yet another very popular Polish DIY / tubes / electronics discussion forum, with lots of „projects”.

PP na 300B schemat http://www.elektroda.pl/rtvforum/topic1180793.html#5975250

An example electroda thread relating to a Push Pull amplifier on the 300B tubes

Odwracacze fazy http://www.mif.pg.gda.pl/homepages/tom/odwracac.htm

Tom writes about phase inverters …

Zasilacz http://www.mif.pg.gda.pl/homepages/tom/zasilacz.htm

Tom writes about power supplies …

Decibel Dungeon DIY hi-fi index. http://www.decdun.me.uk

A DIY site for enthusiasts. Getting started – Everything you need to know about getting started with Hi-fi DIY. What skills, tools and information you need and how to get them. A guide to Hi-fi DIY

16 lampowy wzmacniacz stereofoniczny – stereo amplifier with 16 tubes http://www.fonar.com.pl/audio/diy/amp_16_tubes/amp_16_tubes.htm

Simply LOOK at this 16-tube giant … an amplifier designed by Mr. Janusz Krzemień


This document also includes follow up correspondence from J. Ross MacDonald published in July 1955.

One of a small group of DIY audiophile club members from Canada.
Several interesting schematics to be found here.


This site is a common virtual museum and a «most complete reference work for radios», not only a picture gallery or schematic source. Constantly updated.


This is a very nice tube amp for starters, based upon the EL84′s and an ECC83 … There are also references which the relation between the stamped-on type-numbers and the etched production codes.


An interesting page in Italian, by a fellow audio passionate audio lover.


This is a very interesting, hands on, DIY site, by Mr. Jimmy Auw.  Lots of interesting information on tubes, circuits, and more.


An interesting Polish language blog on issues related to analog sound and analog reproduction systems. 

http://www.stockhammer.at/hifi/hifi-audio-tubes.php - “blue-danube DIY audio”

http://www10.big.or.jp/%7Edh/ - Explore the Wonders of DIRECT HEATING – Susumu Sakuma

“The Sakuma Amps explained….
…by Sakuma-san himself!”

http://www10.big.or.jp/~dh/tamura/ - Tamura catalog

http://www.next-power.net/next-tube/articles/Cheever/cheever_rus.pdf - Test Methodhttp://musicangel.ru/mess102.htm - Tube Data & Articles

http://werple.net.au/~kiewavly/Distortion1.html - Long-Tailed-Pair Distortion
http://www.siteswithstyle.com/VoltSecond/Compact_amp/Compact_amp.html - The Basic Stock Amplifier


http://rumine.donbass.com/us3iat/public_html/book/book.htm - Books

FAQ about VACUUM TUBES, triode vs. pentode & ultralinear, push-pull, etc. MUST READ !

Loadlines from Steve Bench,


- DunkanAmps Forum

- GM70 Amplifier

- Norman Koren Vacuum tube audio page


Resistor noise


Other Tube Datasheet Links:


  • Anthony Welsh Ltd. - A great source for hard to find HI END & power tubes & sockets, various capacitors, vacuum relays, various keys and paddles.
  • Antique Radio Tubes - We sell antique radio tubes and antique tube radios We have over a thousand different radio tubes in stock. We also have a large stock of globe tubes.
  • Antique Radio Tubes - Antique Radio Tubes Sell antique radio tubes, over a thousand different radio tubes in stock
  • Antique Tube Supply - Radio Tubes, Audio tubes for sale, Antique Tube Supply – Your center for Vacuum Tubes for all your old Radio Tube gear.
  • Antique Vacuum Tubes – Electron Tubes – Dealer - Antique Vacuum Tubes, Buy, Sell, here you can shop for tubes.
  • AntiqueTubesSupply - Radio tubes for sale Vintage NOS and Like new Tested with 30 Day Warranty – Antique Tube Supply
  • Harbach Electronics - Your world-wide source for Heathkit, Drake, Collins and Dentron amplifier parts & upgrade kits
  • HEATHKIT Parts - Helping you maintain some of amateur radio’s true classics
  • JustRadios, Capacitors for Antique Radios - “Sells high voltage film and electrolytic capacitors for antique tube radios. Carries 630 volt metal-film, metallized and mylar film capacitors as well as electrolytics. Also has “”capacitor”" tips for antique radio restorations.”
  • M.V.S.Z AO Svetlana - Audio hi-end tubes for amplifier
  • Old Radio Parts - Vintage and reproduction electronic parts specialist – Antique radio dials and knobs, 1940-1970 era phonograph cartridges, needles, idler wheels.
  • Old Radio Parts - Vintage and reproduction electronic parts specialist – antique radio dials and knobs, 1940-1970 era phonograph cartridges, needles, idler wheels.
  • Pacific T.V. Online Tube Catalog - Vacuum tubes and sockets for radio, audio and amateur use. Over 1500 types, online schematics and technical data
  • Play Things of Past - Vintage tubes, radios, parts, radio books and magazines, old telephones, speakers, phonographs, etc. Retail store in Cleveland, Ohio
  • RA17 series valve subs - Discussion of the various valve types which may be used in the Racal RA17/117 HF receivers
  • Rock-Sea Enterprises - manufacturers of fine quality decals and dial scales for antique radio.
  • Technology Systems - Supplier of Heathkit documents, full high quality manuals fom NEW manuals, full catalogs all pdf format. Schematics and 1000 pictures
  • The Cathode Ray Tube site - Collecting and history of CRT tubes and physics instruments
  • The old radio fixer-upper guy - This site is dedicated to the repair, restoration, preservation and sale of old collectable radios, both bakelite and wood.
  • The Old Tube Radio Network - The Old Tube Radio Network is dedicated to those real, American-Made, Old Tube CB Radios
  • The transistor radio directory - Transistor and its history and lot of related infos
  • The Tube Exchange - Buy, sell, trade vacuum tubes
  • The WiWi Tubes Home Page
  • TOM’S TUBES - Amp tubes
  • Tubes 201 - How Vacuum Tubes Really Work
  • Tubes photo gallery - Extensive tubes photogallery by df6na
  • Vacuum Tube Software - The VTDATA software package is a complete vacuum tube manual on your computer. It has all the information you’d expect in a tube manual. VTDATA’s database also includes vacuum tubes of historical interest, such as the early “two digit” types (45, 80, etc.) and hi-fi audio types.
  • Valve Data Sheets - This web page has full data sheets for a number of commonly used valves. Most are Eimac and include the 2C39A, 3-500Z, 3-1000Z, 3CX1500A7, 3CPX5000A7, 3CX5000A7, YC156, 3CX15000B7, 4CX250B, 4CX250A, 4CX1000A, 4CX1500B, 4CX10000J etc. These are not avialable on Eimac’s web site in full – only brief notes.
  • Webtubes AntiqueTubes - Collectible,antique, Radio Tubes, special purpose and audio electron tubes and literature.
  • www.tubes-france.com - Old vacuum tubes from France for sale
  • Xtal Set Society, Inc - The society publishes several books about crystal radio. Sell crystal set projects, tips for crystal radio design, ham radio kits, radio parts and common radio electronic components

Here are some interesting PDF downloads (good reading):

“Output Transformerless Amplifiers, A General Review,” Wireless World,  February 1957, pp. 58-62. (PDF, 4.3M)

The PDF file also contains errata published in Wireless World, March 1957, p. 106.

Special Purpose Oscillators and Amplifiers TM-11-680″. Washington D.C.: Department of the Army, July 1952. (PDF, 7.8M, 130 pages).

Andrew, A. M., 

“Differential-Amplifier Design,” 

Wireless Engineer,  March 1955, pp. 73-79 (PDF, 749K), 
Bailey, A. R., 

“New Phase Splitter,” 

Wireless World, September 1962, pp. 411-413 (PDF, 5.2M)

This document also includes follow up correspondence from D. F. Gibbs, T. S. Marshall, Thomas Roddam, P. A. Douvaletelis, P. Williams published in the 1962 November and December issues.   

Bates, R. H. “A Direct-Coupled Amplifier with Cathode Follower.” Radio & Television News,  November, 1949, pp. 62-63 (PDF 2.0M).

Baxandall, P. J. “Inexpensive 10-Watt Amplifier,” Wireless World,  August 1954. p. 398. (PDF, 1.8M)

This document also includes some follow-up correspondence from D.J.R. Martin, J.K. Webb, and P.J. Baxandall regarding Joh Brighton’s critique of the original article, published in Wireless World, January 1955, p. 21.

Baxandall, P. J. 

“Negative Feedback Tone Control,” 

 Wireless World,  October 1952, pp. 402-405. (PDF 1.7M)

Also contains errata published in Wireless World, November 1952.

Bessy, Carlton E. 

A High Quality Direct-Coupled Audio Amplifier 

 Tele-Tech, September 1951, pp. 40-41, 73-74 (PDF 961K)
Bloxam, R. W. H. 

“Increasing Bass Response: How to Choose the Coupling Condenser for the Parallel-fed Transformer,” 

 Wireless World,  May 12th, 1933, pp. 334-336. (PDF 1.4M)
Boegli, Charles P. 

“The Degenerative Tone Control,” 

Radio & Television News, June 1951, pp. 58-59, 96. (PDF, 557K)
Boegli, Charles P. 

“Simplified Cross-Coupled Amplifier,” 

Radio & Television News, May 1959, pp. 62, 81. (HTML, 460K)
Brooks, Herbert B. 

Circular of the National Bureau of Standards, C408: Information for the Amateur Designer of Transformers for 25- to 60-Cycle Circuits. 

 Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1935. (PDF, 2.1M).

The object of Brooks’ circular according to its introduction is “to assist the amateur in the design of small and medium-sized single-phase transformers for operation in the usual power frequencies. It is assumed that one transformer, or at most a few transformers are to be built, and that successful operation with good-efficiency and reasonable cost is the goal….” This is a response to Scroggie’s article (below) outlining the see-saw phase inverter.

Bustard, Harold A. 

“Phase Inverters”, Radio News, 

 February 1946, pp. 57-60, 98-104 (PDF 2.6M)
Carpenter, R. E. H. 

“‘See-Saw’ or ‘Paraphase’”, Wireless World,

 September 1945, pp. 263-265 (PDF 2.2M)
“Cathode Ray” 

“The Cathode Follower: What It Does and How It Does It”, Wireless World, 

November 1945, pp. 322-325. (PDF 4.0M)
“Cathode Ray” 

“Cathode Followers—With Particular Reference to Grid Bias Arrangements.”, Wireless World, 

 June 1955, pp. 292-296. (PDF 4.3M)
Chatterjee, A. K. and Fett, G. H. 

“Graphical Determination of Nonlinear Distortion”Radio & Television News Radio-Electronic Engineering, 

November 1950, pp. 10A, 31A (PDF 1.4M)
Cooper, V. J. 

“Shunt Regulated Amplifiers”Wireless Engineer, 

 May, 1951, pp. 132-145 (PDF 1.2M)
Dent, H. B. 

“Universal Output Transformer”Wireless World, 

December 1st, 1933, pp. 424-425. (PDF 1.0M)
Dorf, Richard H. 

“Non-clipping Wave Squarer”,  Radio & Television News,

 March 1956, pp. 130, 132 (PDF 364K)
Dorf, Richard H. 

“The Universal Vibrato,” Radio & Television News, 

 April 1954, pp. 52, 53, 90-93. (PDF 2.7M)
Dorf, Richard H. 

“The Wurlitzer Vibrato,”Electronic Musical Instruments, 2nd ed.,

 Mineola, N.Y.: Radio Magazines, 1958, pp. 138-141. (PDF, 1.2M)
Ferguson, W. A. 

“Design for a 20-Watt High Quality Amplfier, Choice of Valves and Operating Conditions”Wireless World, 

May 1955, pp. 223-227. (PDF, 3.7M)
Ferguson, W. A. 

“Design for a 20-Watt High Quality Amplfier, 2.—Construction Details and Performance,” Wireless World

, June 1955, pp. 279-280. (PDF, 3.9M)
Ferras, Allan M. 

“A Bass-Boost Control”Radio & Television News, 

 July 1954, pp. 52-53, 88. (PDF 3.9M, apologies in advance for the lousy copy)
Green, C. B., 

“Suppressor-Grid Modulation,” Bell Laboratories Record, 

October 1938, pp. 41-44. (PDF 2.9M)
Grant, W., 

“Cascode Characteristics,” Wireless World,

 January 1957, pp. 33-36 (PDF 356K)
Grey, Geoffrey H. 

“Direct-Coupled Instrument Amplifier” Radio-Electronic Engineering Edition of Radio & Television News, 

 July 1953, pp. 3-5, 25. (PDF 3.0M)
Gunderman, Robert J. 

“Electronic Audio Bandpass Filter,” Radio & Television News, 

November 1953, pp. 16, 23. (PDF 380K)
Hawkins, J. N. A. 

“A Flexible General Purpose Amplifier,” Radio & Television News,

 November 1950, pp. 52-54. (PDF 2.5M).

The circuit presented here uses a Kappler phase inverter. This circuit in this article appears to be identical to the Triad HF-10 Amplifer Kit.

Hedge, L. B.  

“Cascode A. F. Amplifier,” Wireless World, 

 June 1956, pp. 283-287 (PDF 837K)

Besides an interesting preamp-phase-inverter design, this amplifier is notable as an early example that employs a three-way switchable pentode-ultralinear-triode mode power stage.

Hoadley, J. Carlisle. 

“A Self-Equalizing Preamp,” 


adio & Television News,

 November 1950, pp. 48-49, 156. (PDF 1.4M)

This document includes correspondence from I. F. MacDiarmid published in June 1952.

Hust, L. B. 

“Extended Class A Amplifier,” Radio & Television News, 

September 1953, pp. 40-42, 146-148. (PDF, 1.8M)
James, E. J. 

“Simple Tone Control Circuit: Bass and Treble, Cut and Lift”Wireless World,

 February 1948, p. 48-50 (PDF, 176K)
Jones, George E., Jr. 

“An Analysis of the Split-Load Phase Inverter”Audio Engineering, 

December 1951, pp. 16, 40-41. (PDF 605K)
Jones, T. Iorwerth.  

“The Dependence of the Inter-Electrode Capacitances of Valves upon the Operating Conditions”Proceedings of the Wireless Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 

 Vol. 13, No. 37, 1938, pp. 11-22 (PDF 1.4M)
Keen, A. W. 

“Anode-Follower Derivatives”Wireless Engineer, 

January 1953, 5-9 (PDF 2.7M)
Keeton, Don. 

“Audio Oscillator”

Radio Craft

, April 1946, p. 480. (PDF 40K).
Koller, L. R. 

The Physics of Electron Tubes. ,

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1934 (PDF, 23M)
Lyddiard, J. A. 

“Cathode-Coupled Amplifier”Wireless Engineer, 

 March 1952, pp. 63-67 (PDF 553K)
Martin, A. V. J. 

“Factors Determining Tube Life”

Radio & TV News

, July 1957, p. 111 (PDF 1.1M)

70-Percent Plate Dissipation Rule (PDF 108K)

Amplification Factor or Plate Resistance? (PDF 56K)

Getting More from Tube Data Sheets  (PDF 56K)

Output Load Factor  (PDF 44K)

Phase Inverter Drive Voltage  (PDF 48K)

Plate Conduction Angle  (PDF 108K)

Tube RP Values  (PDF 208K)

The 6L6 Beam Power Tetrode  (PDF 72K)

Two-Resistor Class AB Amp Model  (PDF 292K)

Miller, Ed C.,  

“Vacuum-Tube T-Pad Logarithmic Attenuator”


February 1953, pp. 148-149 (PDF, 573K)
Miller, Ed C. and Jones, T., 

“An Electronic Loss Compressor”

Radio & Television News

, November 1950, pp. 64, 110, 112 (PDF 1.1M)
Moog, Robert  

“The Theremin,” Radio & Television News,

 January 1954, pp. 37-39 (PDF 610K)
Moses, Robert C. 

“Phase Angle Measurements at A.F.” Radio-Electronic Engineering Edition of Radio and Television News,

 July 1953, pp. 12-13, 21 (PDF 833K)
Moullin, M. A. 

“The Apparent Inter-Electrode Capacitance of a Planar Diode”Proceedings of the Wireless Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 

Vol. 13, No. 37, 1938, pp. 23-32 (PDF 1.1M)
Peters, Daniel P.  

“In Defense of the Split-Load Phase Inverter,” Radio and Television News,

 November 1957, pp. 182, 184 (1.8M)
Ravenswood, Herbert. 

“The Fixed-Bias Story”Radio-Electronics, 

February 1958, pp. 47-49. (4.2M)
Reed, Harold. 

“Simplifying Tone Control Circuits”Radio and Television News,

 March 1952, pp. 112-117 (585K)
Rider, John F. 

Vacuum Tube Voltmeters.

 New York: John F. Rider Publishing, Inc., 1941 (PDF, 21M)
Rider, John F. and Seymour D. Uslan. 

Encyclopedia on Cathode-Ray Oscilloscipes and Thier Uses.,

 New York: John F. Rider Publishing, Inc., 1950 (PDF, 141M)
Rifkin, M. S. 

“A Graphical Analysis of the Cathode-Coupled Amplifier,” Communications

, December 1946, pp. 16, 42-43 (PDF 601K)
Ross, S. G. F. 

“Design of Cathode-Coupled Amplifiers”Wireless Engineer, 

July 1950, Vol. 27, No. 322, pp. 212-215 (PDF 148K)
Scroggie, M. G. 

“The See-Saw Circuit”Wireless World,

 July 1945, pp. 194-196 (PDF 1.7M)
Schwan, Alan. 

“A Volume-Compensated Tone Control” , Radio & Television News, 

January 1950, p. 70. (PDF, 1.7M)

See Carpenter’s article (above) regarding the origin of this circuit.

Short, G. W. 

“Very High Stage Gains,” Wireless World,

 February 1962, pp 75-76 (PDF, 404K)
Starr, A. T. and Hall, H. C. 

“A Nomogram for the Band Pass Filter (Zobel Type)”Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 

 Vol. 75, No. 456 (December 1934), pp 749-754 (PDF, 573K)
Terman, Frederick E., 

“Regeneration in Multistage Audio- and Video-frequency Amplifiers” , Electronic and Radio Engineering. 

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1955, pp. 360-363. (PDF, 565K)
Tepper, M. 

“Grid-Leak Bias” , Basic Radio, Vol. 3: Electron Tube Circuits. 

New York: John F. Rider Publisher, Inc., 1961, p. 78 (PDF, 244K)
Transistor Applications, Inc., 

“Part 9 Power Converters,” 


A Handbook of Selected Semiconductor Circuits,

 prepared by Transistor Applications, Inc. for Bureau of Ships, Department of the Navy, NAVSHIPS 93484, NObsr 73231, 1960, pp. 9-1 to 9-31. (PDF, 1.7M)
Tschudi, E. W., 

“Transfer Functions for R-C and R-L Equalizer Networks”Electronics Buyers’ Guide

, June, 1950 (Mid-Month), pp. R37-R39 (PDF, 332K)
Tyler, F. 

“Experiments 35-42, Section III: Experiments with Electronic Devices”Alternating Currents and Electronics. 

London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1963. (PDF, 2.2M)
Valley, George E. and Wallman, Henry, eds.  

Vacuum Tube Amplifiers. 

 New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1948.

These experiments are concerned primarily with measuring the static and dynamic characteristics of triodes.

Van Scoyoc, J. N., 

“A Cross Coupled Input and Phase Inverter Circuit” ,Radio & Television News, Radio-Electronic Engineering Edition, 

 November 1948, pp. 6-9 (PDF 448K)
Vuylsteke, H. A., 

“Neon Lamp Flip-Flop and Binary Counter”


April 1953, pp. 248, 250 (PDF, 1.4M)
Winter, A. J., 

“Effect of Filament Voltage on Vacuum Tube Characteristics,”Tele-Tech, 

 September 1952, pp. 82-83, 150, 152, 154 (PDF 4.3M)
Wadsworth, T. 

“Wireless Section: Chairman’s Address: A Review of Improvements in Cinema Sound Reproduction Since 1928″


Proceedings of the Wireless Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 

 Vol. 13, No. 37, 1938, pp. 1-10 (PDF 1.4M)
…. more will follow shortly …
Please feel free to comment, or to suggest other valuable DIY modules, schematics, circuits.

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