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Tag Archive: preamp

A preamplifier is a special case version of an amplifier. The preamplifier deals with low level signals. In general, an amplifier is an electronic device that takes a weak signal on its input and delivers a stronger version of the signal on it's output. The input signal is taken from the external source of such a signal, which is typically a low power device. Hence, we need to ensure that we do not "load" this device too much. Hence it is typical, that the input impedance of a typical audio amplifier is fairly high, normally at least 47 kilo-ohms or much more. Typical input voltage signals accepted by an audio amplifier are in the order of magnitude say 0,1V ~2V peak to peak. The amplifier increases both the voltage, as well as the power of the input signal. It is equipped with a powerful power supply, which is capable of delivering significant peaks of energy. In essence, you may consider the amplifier to be nothing more but a specialized .... power supply - but one, in which we can modulate the output voltage, so that it precisely follows a scaled up image of the input signal. The amp uses energy from its power supply to modulate the output, so as to match the input signal shape, but with a larger amplitude. Quality of amplifiers may be assesed by various parameters, including: Voltage Gain, or the multiplication factor by which the input signal voltage is scaled up to an output signal voltage; Bandwidth, the frequency range of the device; Efficiency, the amount of music power delivered in comparison to the total power taken from the electricity grid; Linearity, the degree of proportionality between input and output, or lack of distortion Noise, a measure of undesired hum or other noise that is mixed into the output Output dynamic range, the ratio of the largest and the smallest useful output levels Slew rate, the maximum rate of change of the output Rise time, settling time, ringing and overshoot that characterize the step response Stability, the ability to avoid self-oscillation An amplifier can refer to anything from an electrical circuit that uses a single active component, to a complete system such as a packaged audio hi-fi amplifier. They have some kind of gain, or multiplication factor that relates the magnitude of the output signal to the input signal. The gain may be specified as the ratio of output voltage to input voltage (voltage gain), output power to input power (power gain), or some combination of current, voltage, and power. In many cases, with input and output in the same unit, gain is unit-less (though often expressed in decibels). For others this is not necessarily so. For example, a transconductance amplifier has a gain with units of conductance (output current per input voltage). The power gain of an amplifier depends on the source and load impedances used as well as its voltage gain; while an RF amplifier may have its impedances optimized for power transfer, audio and instrumentation amplifiers are normally employed with amplifier input and output impedances optimized for least loading and highest quality. So an amplifier that is said to have a gain of 20 dB might have a voltage gain of ten times and an available power gain of much more than 20 dB (100 times power ratio), yet be delivering a much lower power gain if, for example, the input is a 600 ohm microphone and the output is a 47 kilohm power amplifier's input socket. In most cases an amplifier should be linear; that is, the gain should be constant for any combination of input and output signal. If the gain is not constant, e.g., by clipping the output signal at the limits of its capabilities, the output signal is distorted. There are however cases where variable gain is useful. There are many types of electronic amplifiers, commonly used in radio and television transmitters and receivers, high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment, microcomputers and other electronic digital equipment, and guitar and other instrument amplifiers. Critical components include active devices, such as vacuum tubes or transistors.

Dec 02 2015

Dear Advertiser, Dear Reader …

I love advertising

Dear ADVERTISER This site is targeted at a very specific area of interests. If you’re ELECTRONICS / AUDIO / DIY / HI-END / MUSIC related (or even only but loosely), please be welcome and feel free to hop-in upon my sidebar advertising space.   ALAS, this site does *NOT* tolerate: Viagra, Gambling, Pharma, Sex, Banks, Insurance, …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2015/12/02/survival-of-the-fittest/

Jan 20 2015

Disclaimer / Safety / Liability

Death is permanent

{{ Updated 2015-01-20: Just a quick reminder … }} DEATH is … PERMANENT. ( You have been Warned ! ) DEATH is … PAINFUL. ( Again: You have been Warned ! ) Life-long paralysis is … uncomfortable. ( Again: You have been Warned ! ) {{ And this is NOT about Happy Haloween ! }} …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2015/01/20/disclaimer-safety-liability/

Dec 08 2014

Accuphase DC-37 – Przetwornik cyfrowo-analogowy


Accuphase DC-37 Przetwornik cyfrowo-analogowy   Accuphase to firma z długoletnim doświadczeniem w budowaniu cyfrowych źródeł sygnału: odtwarzaczy CD oraz Super Audio CD. Jest jednym z kilku producentów na świecie mających swoje własne napędy płyt oraz autorskie rozwiązania w dziedzinie transportu sygnału cyfrowego oraz jego dekodowania. Od lat na szczycie oferty znajdują się systemy dzielone, złożone …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/12/08/accuphase-dc-37-przetwornik-cyfrowo-analogowy/

Dec 04 2014

Accuphase E-470 – An Integrated Amplifier


Accuphase E-470 integrated amplifier The E-460 is an integrated amplifier, capable of delivering a power of 2 x 180 W into an 8 Ω load, or 220 W into a 6 Ω load, or up to 260 W into a 4 Ω load, was one of the major successes of the Accuphase company. Based largely …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/12/04/accuphase-e-470-an-integrated-amplifier/

Dec 04 2014

Accuphase E-470 – Wzmacniacz Zintegrowany


  Accuphase E-470 wzmacniacz zintegrowany   Wzmacniacz zintegrowany E-460, mogący oddać moc 2 x 180 W dla obciążenia 8 Ω, 220 W dla 6 Ω i aż 260 dla 4 Ω, był jednym z większych sukcesów firmy Accuphase. Bazując w dużej mierze na osiągnięciach poprzedników, dodał do nich nowatorskie rozwiązania, które całkowicie zmieniły jego status w obrębie …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/12/04/accuphase-e-470-wzmacniacz-zintegrowany/

Dec 02 2014

Transformers – Easy Reading (also from VIAS)

Transformers – by Reauben Lee. This is another link to a very good and easy reading book. This time on the principle operation of Transformers. http://www.vias.org/eltransformers/ This is yet another valuable link originating from the VIAS library: http://www.vias.org/electronics.html The Virtual Institute of Applied Science (VIAS) has been founded by Hans Lohninger to supply high-quality learning materials at …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/12/02/transformers-easy-reading-also-from-vias/

Dec 02 2014

Symmetrical Voltage Doubler (Addendum)

Dear All,  whilst writing about the “Symmetrical Full Bridge Doubler” – I kind of silently assumed that you know the details related to the “maths” associated with “what to expect”.  But as the old saying goes: “Never “ass|u|me” …. So allow me to present to you just a quick reminder as to what might be …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/12/02/symmetrical-voltage-doubler-addendum/

Dec 01 2014

The Gm Amp – by labjc.com


The Gm Amp This following piece relates to a circuit, that Mr. J.C. Morrison calls the Gm Amp. It turns out that there are many interesting and useful aspects to this Gm Amp circuit, so it is worth going into it in greater, better detail. The following text is a reprint of an article as …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/12/01/the-gm-amp-by-labjc-com/

Nov 30 2014

Ayon Audio Auris – modułowy przedwzmacniacz stereo

Ayon_Auris_right_RC bs50

Ayon Audio Auris – modułowy przedwzmacniacz stereo Po sukcesie „mniejszych” przedwzmacniaczy Ayona wielu klientów pytało o model, który miałby budowę modułową i tym samym byłby otwarty na rozbudowę. Odpowiedzią na to zapotrzebowanie okazuje się być model Ayon Auris. Urządzenie modułowe, lampowe, oferujące kilka ciekawych opcji: tor niezbalansowany lub w pełni zbalansowany, wersję ‘Signature’ oraz moduł …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/11/30/ayon-audio-auris/

Nov 30 2014

Dynaudio – aktywnie, cyfrowo i bezprzewodowo

DYN_Xeo4_white_emo s50

Jesień z Dynaudio zapowiada się wyjątkowo aktywnie. Przyjrzyjmy się bliżej pewnemu ciekawemu zjawisku. Długie lata doświadczeń w dziedzinie aktywnych monitorów studyjnych – poparte po raz kolejny wyborem monitorów Dynaudio Active jako wyposażenia referencyjnych studiów BBC – oraz rozwiązań przeznaczonych do nagłośnienia samochodów popchnęły Duńczyków w stronę implementacji aktywnych systemów głośnikowych do zastosowań domowych. Po premierze …

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Permanent link to this article: http://hiend-audio.com/2014/11/30/dynaudio-aktywnie-cyfrowo-i-bezprzewodowo/

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